Title : Content
Keywords: Ornament, Säulen, Geometrie
First of all, I chose 3 important keywords which are ornament, pillars and geometry. The book is all about this and the different Greek and Roman orders. On the first page of the book, there is an important quote that introduces well the whole book. It says: “Von den Fvnf Sevlen sambt ihren Ornamenten vnd zierden als nehmlich”. This quotation is written in old German, which is why it’s not easy to understand it at first sight, but it’s noticeable that if you change the “v” with “u”, everything becomes more readable in German. On the same page we have the 5 different styles written : “Tuscan”, “Doric”, “Ionic”, “Corinthian” and “Composite”. Below each of these words, there is a column with their style.
The Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders are the three Greek orders. Later the Roman Tuscan and Composite orders were added. Each of these orders show a different geometry of columns with their singular ornamentation in each style.
In the first pages the book shows the Tuscan order. It’s therefore a Roman order and it’s often said that it has been taken from the Greek Doric order and simplified. Its main characteristic is that it has a smooth column and no ornamentation or sculpture. Indeed, it has more a curved appearance unlike the Doric. The columns are placed on a base and sometimes on a pedestal. Then, it shows the Doric order that is the oldest of the Greek orders. The columns have between 16 and 24 flutes and have a slightly conical shape. The capital is flared and the pediment is usually carved. The stylobalt is often rather pure and simple, without decoration. Its characteristic feature is the trygliphes. After that, there is the Ionic order that is a less rigorous style. It’s characterised by its scrolled capitals. The columns are also fluted and the base is moulded. In the following pages of the book, we have the Corinthian order, which is recognisable by its capital decorated with acanthus leaves. The capital is flared and well decorated. It is a very rich style with oriental-inspired plant decoration. Finally, the last order presented is the second Roman order, the Composite. It combines the three Greek orders. The capital is a mixture of volutes (Ionic) and acanthus leaves (Corinthian) and the column is inspired by the Doric with its flutes. In the last pages we can see the rich ornamentation this order has.