In this paragraph I talk about the geometry and symmetry of columns described by my assigned book. I think that it is important because when you look at columns, you can see that because of their geometry, they are very symmetrical.
My assigned book talks about the different kinds of columns in architecture. Geometry is a very important part of them. Especially in Ancient Greece, the columns, and the placement of them is very symmetrical.
The shafts (the part of a column between the base and capital) are mostly cones, where the top has been cut off. The bases are a bit wider than the beginning of the cone so it’s more stable.
The bases under the columns consist of cuboid pillars with an extension in the end. Upon them, there is again a small cuboid of the same size as the pillar before the extension. Upon these, the bases of the columns themselves are placed. In Doric ages, they consist of a ring, slightly bigger than the start of the column. The bases of the Ionic columns consist of two small rings, directly put over each other, so a small notch is created. On top of them is a shaft and a bigger ring upon that, whereas the Corinthian bases are made of three rings of the same sizes with shafts between them.
The shafts vary in the different ages. The channels or flutes of the Doric columns are wider than those of the Ionic and Corinthian. Also, the Doric shafts do not have any vertical fillets, their channels are connected by an arris whereas Ionic and Corinthian columns have vertical fillets between their flutes.
The tops of the columns vary in the different ages but are still very symmetrical. The Doric columns end in a simple cuboid whereas the Ionic ones end in volutes and the Corinthian columns end in acanthus leaves.
Da Vignola also puts the columns in reference to parts of the temples. There you can detect a geometry and symmetry that is not only included in the columns, but also in the temples. Furthermore, the placements of the columns in the temples in Ancient Greece are clearly defined. They create a big rectangle whose proportions of the length of the sides are defined by a formula.
The parts behind the pillars of the temples mostly create a big arch. Up until the middle of the column (ore higher), the part behind the columns goes straight up. From there on, there is a semicircle.