- types of Fortifications
- Georg Rümpler
- 7 Maxims
Ernst Friedrich von Borgsdorf (1709) describes in his book “Neu-Triumphierende Fortification auff allerley Situationen/ defensivè und offensivè zu gebrauchen” about the Regulated Royal Fortifications. Thereby he explains that there are 3 types of fortifications, which are both necessary and useful to observe for fortification. The three fortification types are: the Freytagian type, the Pagan type (without reserved fasces) and the Triumphant type.
The Freytagian type of fortress is intended for fortresses positioned by water and mud. The Freytagian type of fortress is intended for the old inhabited cities.
The Pagan type of fortress (without reserved fasce) is often located in dry fields, in the mountains and similar to the Freytagian type of fortress, by water and mud. This type of fortress can be used for both old and new towns.
Since fortresses can also be positioned in the open field and thus be attackable from all sides by the enemy, Ernst von Borgsdorf decreed a new version, namely the triumphant type of fortress. This type of fortress surpassed all previous types of fortresses and kept all possible enemies out of the city.
Ernst Friedrich von Borgsdorf mentions in the first chapter the engineer Georg Rümpler, who introduced the „defension and retirada“ in his fortified fortress. Von Borgsdorf further gives his opinion on two points that Georg Rümpler proposed in his „Defension and Retirada“. First, he states that a fortress should be subjected only under the command of a chief and secondly, Rümpler expands the city informally by his bastions and cortines, which can be a disadvantage in war.
Von Borgsdorf also explains seven main maxims, which he finally includes in his planning:
1. External parts of the walls should be covered with musketry and pieces at the same time, and in large quantities, so that the enemy has no chance in battle
2. All fortresses must be secured with ladders, petards and „throwing brothers“ and they should be defeated only with the Formal Attaque
3. The fasces must be hidden by the enemy and come out only when the enemy attacks
4. All walls of the fortress must be completely equipped with cannons
5. The enemy must be stopped by an outperforming team of the garrison without causing a great loss to the team
6. The enemy must not be able to rush the fortress wall with his high field „Batterien“ and his earthworks
7. The garrison of a fortress must ensure its safety before bombarding the enemy
The seven main maxims are all required for a Weak Fortress. For strong fortress, the 7 main maxims are already included/recognized
Von Borgsdorf, Ernst Friedrich., 1709. Neu-Triumphierende Fortification auff allerley Situationen/defensivè und offensivè zu gebrauchen. Wien: Johann Georg Schlegel.