Concept – Neu-Triumphierende Fortification auff allerley Situationen
The emergence of the Fortification and the early evolution
When humans first started to construct fortifications in any shape or form, they were solely built for defense. At this time, they were only concerned of the weather and being attacked by animals. It was to put up walls around them and a roof over their head.
As the humans went through evolution, so did their fortification. There was a new threat, the threat of other humans or tribes. The desire of owning other people’s life’s and their belongings rose. With that new danger and information transfer over the years, a new type of fortification was invented. The offensive fortification.
The defensive and the offensive fortification evolved strongly through the transfer of information over many years. To the point where they were not comparable to the first beginnings.
The defensive fortification has different areas of application, not only were they incredibly important for the massive civil towns as well for the field camps of the troops and the other armed forces. It was harder to protect the soldiers in the Field because of the open space and 360-degree defense fortification, therefore they tried to use as many ruins or other types of structures they could find. There are natural defensive fortifications and artificial defensive fortifications. Natural ones such as water (lakes, rivers, and streams), morass, hills and so on, they were often used by the Greeks. Artificial ones such as masonry, ramparts, trenches and so on, they were often used by the Romans. There are six different kinds of defensive fortifications.
This type of fortification is for the preservation of the principality / republic. Commonly armed with about 3000 soldiers.
The citadel is a tight fort inside the fortress itself, used to keep the folk obedient. Commonly armed with around 1200 to 1500 soldiers.
As it is said already in the name this kind of fortification is formed by the condition and demand for the fortress. It is situated between the rampart and the primary trench or common folk part of the town.
This type of fortification is situated between outside of the primary trench in the field, further away from the city to keep the enemy as far as possible and secure the common folk.
As its name already suggests, retrenchments are trenches further out in the field in front of a fortress.
These are smaller strongholds out of reach of the main fortress canons. They hold up to 600 soldiers.
There are two types of offensive fortifications, the regular and irregular offensive fortification. The regular one has the same shape all around, so its secured evenly around. The irregular one does not have this even shape, most commonly because of the placement (by a mountain, hill etc.) or the layout of old cities.
The offensive fortification has six different objectives:
- Assemblage of the armed forces.
- Winning the field till the foot of the fortress.
- Conquering of the counterscarps.
- Overpassing the trenches.
- Breaking the ramparts.
- Coping the whole fortress.
keywords: -evolution -defensive fortification -positive fortification