So-called representative buildings always correspond to the spirit of the time. These buildings can be analysed and compared on the basis of certain architectural features. In his book, Mario Gioffredo has mainly explained the 5 classical orders of columns in architecture. They consist of the same types of components, namely the post, the column and the entablature. The 5 orders refer to construction methods that were most frequently used in antiquity. These 5 classical orders are the most important system of division in ancient and modern architecture from the Renaissance to the early twentieth century.
The Doric, Ionic and Corinthian are the 3 main orders because they were used in ancient Greece and Rome. The Tuscan and Composite orders, on the other hand, were only used in ancient Rome.
The Doric order is the oldest and also the simplest. It is characterised by strict, clearly structured building elements and forms. Its architectural style and name can be attributed to the Greek Dorians, who settled from the north, mainly in Crete and the Peloponnese.
The Ionic order follows the Doric order. In contrast to the Doric order, the Ionic column stands on a base, usually a square pedestal. The column itself is slimmer. Churches with female patron saints often have Ionic columns because their shape is associated with the female body. The indentations of the column shaft, so-called fluting, are no longer sharp-edged to each other. The spacing thus creates a small, straight surface.
The Doric and Ionic order is followed by the Corinthian order. It is very similar to the Ionic order, but is distinguished by its capital. Its ornamentation alone is the reason for the later popularity of the Corinthian column among the Romans, for example also for the later composite capital.
The composite order is a development of Roman architecture. In its basic features, it follows the Corinthian order. It can also be traced for the first time to the Arch of Titus in Rome. Much later in the timeline, the architects of the Renaissance developed it further into an independent order.
The last order to be mentioned is the Tuscan order. It was introduced in Roman antique architecture as a variant of the Doric order. In contrast to the Greek order, the Roman column stands on a base. In addition, the fluting is usually missing from the column shaft. It also comes without the formation of a special entablature.
Keywords: Orders, building style, construction methods